Thursday, 7 February 2013

EDUCATION AND HEALTH

Education

Students in Uganda
Illiteracy is common in Uganda, particularly amongst females.[68] Public spending on education was at 5.2% of the 2002–2005 GDP.[68] Much public education in primary and secondary schools focuses upon repetition and memorization. There are also state exams that must be taken at every level of education. Uganda has both private and public universities. The largest university in Uganda is Makerere University, located outside of Kampala. The system of education in Uganda has a structure of 7 years of primary education, 6 years of secondary education (divided into 4 years of lower secondary and 2 years of upper secondary school), and 3 to 5 years of post-secondary education. The present system has existed since the early 1960s. Although some primary education is compulsory under law, in many rural communities this is not observed as many families feel they cannot afford costs such as uniforms and equipment. State schools are usually run by the Church of Uganda and are built on land owned as such. In primary education, children sit exams at the end of each academic year in order to discern whether they are to progress to the next class; this leads to some classes which include a large range of ages. Upon completing P7 (The final year of primary education), many children from poorer rural communities will return to their families for subsistence farming. Secondary education is focused mainly in larger cities, with boarding optional. Children are usually presented with an equipment list which they are to obtain at the beginning of their time at secondary school. This list classically includes items such as writing equipment, toilet roll and cleaning brushes, all of which the student must have upon admission to school.
In Uganda, there are Universities such as the Makerere University located in the Kampala District. Milton Obote, former President of Uganda, was allegedly an alumni.

Health

Uganda has been among the rare HIV success stories, one of the reasons being its openness.[68] In the 1980s, more than 30% of Ugandan residents had HIV; this had fallen to 6.4% by the end of 2008, the most effective national response to AIDS of any African country.[69] This is supported by the findings of a 2006 study that modern contraceptive use in Uganda is low.[70] However, there has been a spike in recent years compared to the mid-nineties,[71] especially after a shift in US Aid Policy toward abstinence only campaigns (starting in 2003 with the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief under U.S. President George W. Bush). According to one report by Uganda's Aids commissioner, the number of new HIV infections has almost doubled from 70,000 in 2003 to 130,000 in 2005.[citation needed] Researchers have found that rates of new infection have stabilized as of 2005 due to a variety of factors, including increased condom use and sexual health awareness. Meanwhile, the practice of abstinence was found to have decreased.[72]
Life expectancy at birth is estimated to be 53.45 years in 2012.[73] The infant mortality rate is approximately 61 deaths per 1,000 children in 2012.[74] There were 8 physicians per 100,000 persons in the early 2000s.[68] The 2006 Uganda Demographic Health Survey (UDHS) indicates that roughly 6,000 women die each year due to pregnancy-related complications.[75] However, recent pilot studies by Future Health Systems have shown that this rate could be significantly reduced by implementing a voucher scheme for health services and transport to clinics.[76][77]
Uganda's elimination of user fees at state health facilities in 2001 has resulted in an 80% increase in visits; over half of this increase is from the poorest 20% of the population.[78] This policy has been cited as a key factor in helping Uganda achieve its Millennium Development Goals and as an example of the importance of equity in achieving those goals.[47] Despite this policy, many users are denied care if they don't provide their own medical equipment, as happened in the highly publicised case of Jennifer Anguko.[79] Poor communication within hospitals,[80] low satisfaction with health services[81] and distance to health service providers undermine the provision of quality health care to people living in Uganda, and particularly for those in poor and elderly-headed households.[82] The provision of subsidies for poor and rural populations, along with the extension of public private partnerships, have been identified as important provisions to enable vulnerable populations to access health services.[82]
In July 2012, there was Ebola outbreak in the Kibaale District of the country.[83] On 4 October 2012, the Ministry of Health officially declared the end of the Ebola outbreak that killed at least 16 people.[84]
Uganda also has Hospitals such as the Mulago Hospital which was built in 1962.

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